HOT DEALS & NEWSLETTERS
Info Center > China Factbook
 
 

China Factbook

Introduction - China
Background
For centuries China stood as a leading civilization, outpacing the rest of the world in the arts and sciences, but in the 19th and early 20th centuries, the country was beset by civil unrest, major famines, military defeats, and foreign occupation. After World War II, the Communists under MAO Zedong established an autocratic socialist system that, while ensuring China's sovereignty, imposed strict controls over everyday life and cost the lives of tens of millions of people. After 1978, his successor DENG Xiaoping and other leaders focused on market-oriented economic development and by 2000 output had quadrupled. For much of the population, living standards have improved dramatically and the room for personal choice has expanded, yet political controls remain tight.

Location
Eastern Asia, bordering the East China Sea, Korea Bay, Yellow Sea, and South China Sea, between North Korea and Vietnam

Geographic Coordinates
35 00 N, 105 00 E

Map references
Asia

Area
Total: 9,596,960 sq km
Land: 9,326,410 sq km
Water: 270,550 sq km

Area - comparative
Slightly smaller than the US

Land boundaries
Total: 22,117 km
Border countries: Afghanistan 76 km, Bhutan 470 km, Burma 2,185 km, India 3,380 km, Kazakhstan 1,533 km, North Korea 1,416 km, Kyrgyzstan 858 km, Laos 423 km, Mongolia 4,677 km, Nepal 1,236 km, Pakistan 523 km, Russia (northeast) 3,605 km, Russia (northwest) 40 km, Tajikistan 414 km, Vietnam 1,281 km
Regional borders: Hong Kong 30 km, Macau 0.34 km

Coastline
14,500 km

Maritime claims
Territorial sea: 12 nm
Contiguous zone: 24 nm
Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin

Climate
Extremely diverse; tropical in south to subarctic in north

Terrain
Mostly mountains, high plateaus, deserts in west; plains, deltas, and hills in east

Elevation extremes
Lowest point: Turpan Pendi -154 m
Highest point: Mount Everest 8,850 m

Natural resources
Coal, iron ore, petroleum, natural gas, mercury, tin, tungsten, antimony, manganese, molybdenum, vanadium, magnetite, aluminum, lead, zinc, uranium, hydropower potential (world's largest)

Land use
Arable land: 14.86% Permanent crops: 1.27% Other: 83.87% (2005)

Irrigated land
545,960 sq km (2003)

Total renewable water resources
2,829.6 cu km (1999)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural)
Total: 549.76 cu km/yr (7%/26%/68%)
Per capita: 415 cu m/yr (2000)

Natural hazards
Frequent typhoons (about five per year along southern and eastern coasts); damaging floods; tsunamis; earthquakes; droughts; land subsidence

Environment - current issues
Air pollution (greenhouse gases, sulfur dioxide particulates) from reliance on coal produces acid rain; water shortages, particularly in the north; water pollution from untreated wastes; deforestation; estimated loss of one-fifth of agricultural land since 1949 to soil erosion and economic development; desertification; trade in endangered species

Environment - international agreements
Party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note
World's fourth largest country (after Russia, Canada, and US); Mount Everest on the border with Nepal is the world's tallest peak
People - China
Population
1,330,044,544 (July 2008 est.)

Age structure
0-14 years: 20.1% (male 142,085,665/female 125,300,391)
15-64 years: 71.9% (male 491,513,378/female 465,020,030)
65 years and over: 8% (male 50,652,480/female 55,472,661) (2008 est.)

Median age
total: 33.6 years
male: 33.1 years
female: 34.2 years (2008 est.)

Population growth rate
0.629% (2008 est.)

Birth rate
13.71 births/1,000 population (2008 est.)

Death rate
7.03 deaths/1,000 population (2008 est.)

Net migration rate
-0.39 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2008 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.11 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.13 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.91 male(s)/female
total population: 1.06 male(s)/female (2008 est.)

Infant mortality rate
total: 21.16 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 19.43 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 23.08 deaths/1,000 live births (2008 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
total population: 73.18 years
male: 71.37 years
female: 75.18 years (2008 est.)

Total fertility rate
1.77 children born/woman (2008 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate
0.1% (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS
840,000 (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths
44,000 (2003 est.)

Major infectious diseases
Degree of risk: intermediate
Food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
Vectorborne diseases: Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever, Japanese encephalitis, and malaria
Water contact disease: leptospirosis
Animal contact disease: rabies
Note: highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza has been identified in this country; it poses a negligible risk with extremely rare cases possible among US citizens who have close contact with birds (2008)

Nationality
Noun: Chinese (singular and plural) Adjective: Chinese

Ethnic groups
Han Chinese 91.5%, Zhuang, Manchu, Hui, Miao, Uyghur, Tujia, Yi, Mongol, Tibetan, Buyi, Dong, Yao, Korean, and other nationalities 8.5% (2000 census)

Religions
Daoist (Taoist), Buddhist, Christian 3%-4%, Muslim 1%-2%
note: officially atheist (2002 est.)

Languages
Standard Chinese or Mandarin (Putonghua, based on the Beijing dialect), Yue (Cantonese), Wu (Shanghainese), Minbei (Fuzhou), Minnan (Hokkien-Taiwanese), Xiang, Gan, Hakka dialects, minority languages (see Ethnic groups entry)

Literacy
Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: 90.9%
Male: 95.1%
Female: 86.5% (2000 census)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)
Total: 11 years
Male: 11 years
Female: 11 years (2006)

Education expenditures
1.9% of GDP (1999)
Government - China
Country name
Conventional long form: People's Republic of China
Conventional short form: China
Local long form: Zhonghua Renmin Gongheguo
Local short form: Zhongguo
Abbreviation: PRC+

Government type
Communist state

Capital
Name: Beijing
Geographic coordinates: 39 55 N, 116 23 E
Time difference: UTC+8 (13 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
note: despite its size, all of China falls within one time zone

Administrative divisions
23 provinces (sheng, singular and plural), 5 autonomous regions (zizhiqu, singular and plural), and 4 municipalities (shi, singular and plural)
Provinces: Anhui, Fujian, Gansu, Guangdong, Guizhou, Hainan, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Jilin, Liaoning, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, Sichuan, Yunnan, Zhejiang; (see note on Taiwan)
Autonomous regions: Guangxi, Nei Mongol, Ningxia, Xinjiang Uygur, Xizang (Tibet)
Municipalities: Beijing, Chongqing, Shanghai, Tianjin
note: China considers Taiwan its 23rd province; see separate entries for the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau

Independence
221 BC (unification under the Qin or Ch'in Dynasty); 1 January 1912 (Qing or Ch'ing Dynasty replaced by the Republic of China); 1 October 1949 (People's Republic of China established)

National holiday
Anniversary of the Founding of the People's Republic of China, 1 October (1949)

Constitution
most recent promulgation 4 December 1982

Legal system
based on civil law system; derived from Soviet and continental civil code legal principles; legislature retains power to interpret statutes; constitution ambiguous on judicial review of legislation; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage
18 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state: President HU Jintao (since 15 March 2003); Vice President XI Jinping (since 15 March 2008)
Head of government: Premier WEN Jiabao (since 16 March 2003); Executive Vice Premier LI Keqiang (17 March 2008), Vice Premier HUI Liangyu (since 17 March 2003), Vice Premier ZHANG Deijiang (since 17 March 2008), and Vice Premier WANG Qishan (since 17 March 2008)
Cabinet: State Council appointed by National People's Congress (NPC)
Elections: president and vice president elected by National People's Congress for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); elections last held 15-17 March 2008 (next to be held in mid-March 2013); premier nominated by president, confirmed by National People's Congress
election results: HU Jintao elected president by National People's Congress with a total of 2,963 votes; XI Jinping elected vice president with a total of 2,919 votes

Legislative branch
Unicameral National People's Congress or Quanguo Renmin Daibiao Dahui (2,987 seats; members elected by municipal, regional, and provincial people's congresses, and People's Liberation Army to serve five-year terms)
Elections: last held December 2007-February 2008; date of next election - late 2012 to early 2013
Election results: percent of vote - NA; seats - 2,987

Judicial branch
Supreme People's Court (judges appointed by the National People's Congress); Local People's Courts (comprise higher, intermediate, and basic courts); Special People's Courts (primarily military, maritime, railway transportation, and forestry courts)

Political parties and leaders
Chinese Communist Party or CCP [HU Jintao]; eight registered small parties controlled by CCP

Political pressure groups and leaders
the China Democracy Party; the Falungong spiritual movement note: no substantial political opposition groups exist, although the government has identified the organizations listed above as subversive groups

International organization participation
ADB, AfDB (nonregional members), APEC, APT, Arctic Council (observer), ARF, ASEAN (dialogue partner), BIS, CDB, EAS, FAO, G-20, G-24 (observer), G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, LAIA (observer), MIGA, MINURSO, MONUC, NAM (observer), NSG, OAS (observer), OPCW, PCA, PIF (partner), SAARC (observer), SCO, UN, UN Security Council, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNITAR, UNMIL, UNMIS, UNMIT, UNOCI, UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US
Chief of mission: Ambassador ZHOU Wenzhong
Chancery: 2300 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
Telephone: [1] (202) 328-2500
FAX: [1] (202) 328-2582
Consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, New York, San Francisco

Diplomatic representation from the US:
Chief of mission: Ambassador Clark T. RANDT, Jr.
Embassy: 55 An Jia Lou Lu, 100600 Beijing
Mailing address: PSC 461, Box 50, FPO AP 96521-0002
Telephone: [86] (10) 8531-3000
FAX: [86] (10) 8531-3300
Consulate(s) general: Chengdu, Guangzhou, Shanghai, Shenyang, Wuhan

Flag description
red with a large yellow five-pointed star and four smaller yellow five-pointed stars (arranged in a vertical arc toward the middle of the flag) in the upper hoist-side corner
Economy - China
Economy - overview
China's economy during the past 30 years has changed from a centrally planned system that was largely closed to international trade to a more market-oriented economy that has a rapidly growing private sector and is a major player in the global economy. Reforms started in the late 1970s with the phasing out of collectivized agriculture, and expanded to include the gradual liberalization of prices, fiscal decentralization, increased autonomy for state enterprises, the foundation of a diversified banking system, the development of stock markets, the rapid growth of the non-state sector, and the opening to foreign trade and investment. China has generally implemented reforms in a gradualist or piecemeal fashion, including the sale of minority shares in four of China's largest state banks to foreign investors and refinements in foreign exchange and bond markets in 2005. After keeping its currency tightly linked to the US dollar for years, China in July 2005 revalued its currency by 2.1% against the US dollar and moved to an exchange rate system that references a basket of currencies. Cumulative appreciation of the renminbi against the US dollar since the end of the dollar peg was more than 20% by late 2008. The restructuring of the economy and resulting efficiency gains have contributed to a more than tenfold increase in GDP since 1978. Measured on a purchasing power parity (PPP) basis that adjusts for price differences, China in 2008 stood as the second-largest economy in the world after the US, although in per capita terms the country is still lower middle-income. Annual inflows of foreign direct investment in 2007 rose to nearly $84 billion. By the end of 2007, nearly 7,000 domestic Chinese enterprises had made an aggregate $118 billion in direct investments in 173 countries and regions around the world. The Chinese government faces numerous economic development challenges, including: (a) sustaining adequate job growth for tens of millions of migrants, new entrants to the work force, and workers laid off from state-owned enterprises; (b) reducing corruption and other economic crimes; and (c) containing environmental damage and social strife related to the economy's rapid transformation. Economic development has been more rapid in coastal provinces than in the interior, and approximately 200 million rural laborers and their dependents have relocated to urban areas to find work. One demographic consequence of the "one child" policy is that China is now one of the most rapidly aging countries in the world. Deterioration in the environment - notably air pollution, soil erosion, and the steady fall of the water table, especially in the north - is another long-term problem. China continues to lose arable land because of erosion and economic development. In 2007 China intensified government efforts to improve environmental conditions, tying the evaluation of local officials to environmental targets, publishing a national climate change policy, and establishing a high level leading group on climate change, headed by Premier WEN Jiabao. The Chinese government seeks to add energy production capacity from sources other than coal and oil. In late 2008, as China commemorated the 30th anniversary of its historic economic reforms, the global economic downturn began to slow foreign demand for Chinese exports for the first time in several years. The government vowed to continue reforming the economy and emphasized the need to increase domestic consumption in order to make China less dependent on foreign exports for GDP growth in the future.

GDP (purchasing power parity)
$7.8 trillion (2008 est.)

GDP (official exchange rate)
$4.222 trillion (2008 est.)

GDP - real growth rate
9.8% (2008 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP)
$6,100 (2008 est.)

GDP - composition by sector
Agriculture: 10.6%
Industry: 49.2%
Services: 40.2% (2008 est.)

Labor force
807.7 million (2008 est.)

Labor force - by occupation
Agriculture: 43%
Industry: 25%
Services: 32% (2006 est.)

Unemployment rate
4% officially in urban areas, but including migrants may be as high as 9%; substantial unemployment and underemployment in rural areas (2008 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share
Lowest 10%: 1.6%
Highest 10%: 34.9% (2004)

Distribution of family income - Gini index
47 (2007)

Investment (gross fixed)
40.2% of GDP (2008 est.)

Budget
Revenues: $868.6 billion
Expenditures: $850.5 billion (2008 est.)

Public debt
15.7% of GDP (2008 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices)
6% (2008 est.)

Central bank discount rate
3.06% (17 December 2007)

Commercial bank prime lending rate
5.58% (17 December 2007)

Stock of money
$2.3 trillion (31 October 2008)

Stock of quasi money
$4.331 trillion (31 October 2008)

Stock of domestic credit
$5.316 trillion (31 October 2008)

Market value of publicly traded shares
$6.226 trillion (31 December 2007 est.)

Agriculture - products
rice, wheat, potatoes, corn, peanuts, tea, millet, barley, apples, cotton, oilseed; pork; fish

Industries
Mining and ore processing, iron, steel, aluminum, and other metals, coal; machine building; armaments; textiles and apparel; petroleum; cement; chemicals; fertilizers; consumer products, including footwear, toys, and electronics; food processing; transportation equipment, including automobiles, rail cars and locomotives, ships, and aircraft; telecommunications equipment, commercial space launch vehicles, satellites

Industrial production growth rate
10.7% (2008 est.)

Electricity - production
3.256 trillion kWh (2007)

Electricity - consumption
3.271 trillion kWh (2007)

Electricity - exports
14.56 billion kWh (2007 est.)

Electricity - imports
4.251 billion kWh (2007 est.)

Oil - production
3.725 million bbl/day (2008 est.)

Oil - consumption
7.88 million bbl/day (2007 est.)

Oil - exports
399,000 bbl/day (2007)

Oil - imports
4.21 million bbl/day (2007)

Oil - proved reserves
16 billion bbl (1 January 2008 est.)

Natural gas - production
69.27 billion cu m (2007 est.)

Natural gas - consumption
70.51 billion cu m (2007 est.)

Natural gas - exports
5.36 billion cu m (2007 est.)

Natural gas - imports
3.871 billion cu m (2007 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves
2.265 trillion cu m (1 January 2008 est.)

Current account balance
$368.2 billion (2008 est.)

Exports
$1.465 trillion f.o.b. (2008 est.)

Exports - commodities
electrical and other machinery, including data processing equipment, apparel, textile, iron and steel, optical and medical equipment

Exports - partners
US 19.1%, Hong Kong 15.1%, Japan 8.4%, South Korea 4.6%, Germany 4% (2007)

Imports
$1.156 trillion f.o.b. (2008 est.)

Imports - commodities
electrical and other machinery, oil and mineral fuels, optical and medical equipment, metal ores, plastics, organic chemicals

Imports - partners
Japan 14%, South Korea 10.9%, Taiwan 10.5%, US 7.3%, Germany 4.7% (2007)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold
$2.033 trillion (31 December 2008 est.)

Debt - external
$420.8 billion (31 December 2008 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home
$758.9 billion (2007 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad
$139.3 billion (2008 est.)

Exchange rates
Renminbi yuan (RMB) per US dollar - 6.9385 (2008 est.), 7.61 (2007), 7.97 (2006), 8.1943 (2005), 8.2768 (2004)
Communications - China
Telephones - main lines in use
365.4 million (2007)

Telephones - mobile cellular
547.286 million (2007)

Telephone system
General assessment: domestic and international services are increasingly available for private use; unevenly distributed domestic system serves principal cities, industrial centers, and many towns; China continues to develop its telecommunications infrastructure, and is partnering with foreign providers to expand its global reach; China in the summer of 2008 began a major restructuring of its telecommunications industry, resulting in the consolidation of its six telecom service operators to three, China Telecom, China Mobile and China Unicom, each providing both fixed-line and mobile services
Domestic: interprovincial fiber-optic trunk lines and cellular telephone systems have been installed; mobile-cellular subscribership is increasing rapidly; the number of Internet users exceeded 250 million by summer 2008; a domestic satellite system with 55 earth stations is in place
International: country code - 86; a number of submarine cables provide connectivity to Asia, the Middle East, Europe, and the US; satellite earth stations - 7 (5 Intelsat - 4 Pacific Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean; 1 Intersputnik - Indian Ocean region; and 1 Inmarsat - Pacific and Indian Ocean regions) (2007)

Radio broadcast stations
AM 369, FM 259, shortwave 45 (1998)

Television broadcast stations
Definition Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order 3,240 (of which 209 are operated by China Central Television, 31 are provincial TV stations, and nearly 3,000 are local city stations) (1997)

Internet country code
.cn

Internet hosts
14.306 million (2008)

Internet users
253 million (2008)
Transportation - China
Airports
467 (2007)

Airports - with paved runways
Total: 403
Over 3,047 m: 58
2,438 to 3,047 m: 128
1,524 to 2,437 m: 130
914 to 1,523 m: 20
Under 914 m: 67 (2007)

Airports - with unpaved runways
Total: 64
Over 3,047 m: 4
2,438 to 3,047 m: 4
1,524 to 2,437 m: 13
914 to 1,523 m: 17
Under 914 m: 26 (2007)

Heliports
35 (2007)

Pipelines
gas 28,132 km; oil 20,204 km; refined products 9,746 km (2008)

Railways
Total: 75,438 km
Standard gauge: 75,438 km 1.435-m gauge (20,151 km electrified) (2005)

Roadways
Total: 1,930,544 km
Paved: 1,575,571 km (includes 41,005 km of expressways)
uUnpaved: 354,973 km (2005)

Waterways
110,000 km navigable (2008)

Merchant marine
Total: 1,826
By type: barge carrier 4, bulk carrier 451, cargo 689, carrier 2, chemical tanker 69, combination ore/oil 1, container 162, liquefied gas 44, passenger 8, passenger/cargo 83, petroleum tanker 244, refrigerated cargo 33, roll on/roll off 10, specialized tanker 9, vehicle carrier 17 Foreign-owned: 20 (Ecuador 1, Greece 2, Hong Kong 12, Indonesia 1, Japan 2, South Korea 1, Norway 1) Registered in other countries: 1,441 (Bahamas 10, Bangladesh 1, Belize 71, Bermuda 10, Bolivia 1, Cambodia 193, Cyprus 10, France 5, Georgia 10, Germany 2, Honduras 3, Hong Kong 324, India 1, Indonesia 2, Kiribati 15, South Korea 1, Liberia 11, Malta 12, Marshall Islands 7, Mongolia 1, Norway 36, Panama 532, Philippines 4, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 94, Sierra Leone 15, Singapore 14, Thailand 1, Tuvalu 16, unknown 39) (2008)

Ports and terminals
Dalian, Guangzhou, Ningbo, Qingdao, Qinhuangdao, Shanghai, Shenzhen, Tianjin
Military - China
Military branches
Definition Field Listing People's Liberation Army (PLA): Ground Forces, Navy (includes marines and naval aviation), Air Force (includes airborne forces), and Second Artillery Corps (strategic missile force); People's Armed Police (PAP); PLA Reserve Force (2008)

Military service age and obligation
18-22 years of age for selective compulsory military service, with 24-month service obligation; no minimum age for voluntary service (all officers are volunteers); 18-19 years of age for women high school graduates who meet requirements for specific military jobs (2007)

Manpower available for military service
males age 16-49: 375,009,345 females age 16-49: 354,314,328 (2008 est.)

Manpower fit for military service
Males age 16-49: 375,009,345
Females age 16-49: 354,314,328 (2008 est.)

Manpower fit for military service
Males age 16-49: 313,321,639
Females age 16-49: 295,951,438 (2008 est.)

Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually
Male: 10,760,380
Female: 9,710,032 (2008 est.)

Military expenditures
4.3% of GDP (2006)
Transnational Issues - China
Disputes - international
Continuing talks and confidence-building measures work toward reducing tensions over Kashmir that nonetheless remains militarized with portions under the de facto administration of China (Aksai Chin), India (Jammu and Kashmir), and Pakistan (Azad Kashmir and Northern Areas); India does not recognize Pakistan's ceding historic Kashmir lands to China in 1964; China and India continue their security and foreign policy dialogue started in 2005 related to the dispute over most of their rugged, militarized boundary, regional nuclear proliferation, and other matters; China claims most of India's Arunachal Pradesh to the base of the Himalayas; lacking any treaty describing the boundary, Bhutan and China continue negotiations to establish a common boundary alignment to resolve territorial disputes due to cartographic discrepancies; Chinese maps show an international boundary symbol off the coasts of the littoral states of the South China Seas, where China has interrupted Vietnamese hydrocarbon exploration; China asserts sovereignty over the Spratly Islands together with Malaysia, Philippines, Taiwan, Vietnam, and possibly Brunei; the 2002 "Declaration on the Conduct of Parties in the South China Sea" eased tensions in the Spratly's but is not the legally binding "code of conduct" sought by some parties; Vietnam and China continue to expand construction of facilities in the Spratly's and in March 2005, the national oil companies of China, the Philippines, and Vietnam signed a joint accord on marine seismic activities in the Spratly Islands; China occupies some of the Paracel Islands also claimed by Vietnam and Taiwan; China and Taiwan continue to reject both Japan's claims to the uninhabited islands of Senkaku-shoto (Diaoyu Tai) and Japan's unilaterally declared equidistance line in the East China Sea, the site of intensive hydrocarbon exploration and exploitation; certain islands in the Yalu and Tumen rivers are in dispute with North Korea; North Korea and China seek to stem illegal migration to China by North Koreans, fleeing privations and oppression, by building a fence along portions of the border and imprisoning North Koreans deported by China; China and Russia have demarcated the once disputed islands at the Amur and Ussuri confluence and in the Argun River in accordance with their 2004 Agreement; China and Tajikistan have begun demarcating the revised boundary agreed to in the delimitation of 2002; the decade-long demarcation of the China-Vietnam land boundary is expected to be completed by the end of 2008, while the maritime boundary delimitation and fisheries agreements in the Gulf of Tonkin, ratified in June 2004, have been implemented; citing environmental, cultural, and social concerns, China has reconsidered construction of 13 dams on the Salween River, but energy-starved Burma, with backing from Thailand, remains intent on building five hydro-electric dams downstream despite regional and international protests; Chinese and Hong Kong authorities met in March 2008 to resolve ownership and use of lands recovered in Shenzhen River channelization, including 96-hectare Lok Ma Chau Loop; Hong Kong developing plans to reduce 2,000 out of 2,800 hectares of its restricted Closed Area by 2010

Refugees and internally displaced persons
Refugees (country of origin): 300,897 (Vietnam); estimated 30,000-50,000 (North Korea)
IDPs: 90,000 (2007)

Trafficking in persons
Current situation: China is a source, transit, and destination country for men, women, and children trafficked for the purposes of sexual exploitation and forced labor; the majority of trafficking in China occurs within the country's borders, but there is also considerable international trafficking of Chinese citizens to Africa, Asia, Europe, Latin America, the Middle East, and North America; Chinese women are lured abroad through false promises of legitimate employment, only to be forced into commercial sexual exploitation, largely in Taiwan, Thailand, Malaysia, and Japan; women and children are trafficked to China from Mongolia, Burma, North Korea, Russia, and Vietnam for forced labor, marriage, and prostitution; some North Korean women and children seeking to leave their country voluntarily cross the border into China and are then sold into prostitution, marriage, or forced labor
Tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List - China is on the Tier 2 Watch List for the fourth consecutive year for its failure to provide evidence of increasing efforts to combat human trafficking, particularly in terms of punishment of trafficking crimes and the protection of Chinese and foreign victims of trafficking; victims are sometimes punished for unlawful acts that were committed as a direct result of their being trafficked, such as violations of prostitution or immigration/emigration controls; the Chinese Government continued to treat North Korean victims of trafficking solely as economic migrants, routinely deporting them back to horrendous conditions in North Korea; additional challenges facing the Chinese Government include the enormous size of its trafficking problem and the significant level of corruption and complicity in trafficking by some local government officials (2008)

Illicit drugs
Major transshipment point for heroin produced in the Golden Triangle region of Southeast Asia; growing domestic consumption of synthetic drugs, and heroin from Southeast and Southwest Asia; source country for methamphetamine and heroin chemical precursors, despite new regulations on its large chemical industry (2008)